The Shanghai Men's Health Study (SMHS) is a population-based cohort study of 61,480 Chinese men between ages 40 and 74 who lived in 8 urban communities in Shanghai at enrollment (2002-2006). Detailed information on dietary and other lifestyle factors was collected at baseline and is being updated in follow-up surveys. Biological samples (blood, and or urine) were collected from 89% of cohort members. The cohort has been followed up for cancer occurrence and deaths via linkage with the population-based Shanghai Cancer Registry and the Shanghai Vital Statistics Unit, as well as through visits to all living cohort members every 3-4 years. The resources from this study have supported multiple projects that investigate the etiology of cancers and other chronic diseases, such as coronary heart diseases, diabetes, stroke, and hypertension. The SMHS, funded by the National Cancer Institute since 2001, is jointly conducted by the Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center and the Shanghai Cancer Institute.