The Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS) is a population-based cohort study of approximately 75,000 Chinese women who were recruited between 1997 and 2000 and have been followed through multiple in-person follow-up surveys and record linkages. The cohort has been followed by using a combination of record linkage and active follow-ups. Every 2 years, an interviewer visits the last known address of each living cohort member and records details of the interim health history, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, stroke, bone fracture, and other chronic diseases that have occurred since the last in-person contact. Over the years, data and biological samples collected in the SWHS have been used to evaluate many important etiologic hypotheses and support multiple studies, including several National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored cohort consortium projects. In the current grant period, we will evaluate a new set of hypotheses and confirm, with a larger sample size and improved exposure assessments, some of the promising associations identified during the previous grant period. We will continue to analyze survey data to evaluate dietary and other lifestyle factors in relation to cancer risk with a specific focus on evaluating dietary protective factors, such as regular consumption of soy food, tea, ginseng, as well as cruciferous and allium vegetables.Sample size at recruitment is 75,000.